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France Pro Natalist Policy Case Study

Population Policies Case Studies

I have been getting the general feeling that people, myself included, are struggling when it comes to the population case studies due to a lack of notes. Population policies and migration seem to be the ones that everyone is lacking and unfortunately I don't seem to have any notes on the migration case studies but I do have some on the population policies so I thought if I type them up,  it would be one less thing from everyone to worry about!

Population policies are used by countries to try and achieve optimum population and there are four types:
ANTI-NATAL= discourages births because you are worried about over population and its effects
-----> China and Singapore
PRO-NATAL= encourages births because you fell that you do not have enough people in your country
-----> France
TRANSMIGRATION= if you have parts of your country that are overcrowded and other parts that are virtually empty you might try and even things out a bit
-----> Indonesia
IMMIGRATION= you do not want to have open borders even if you are underpopulated because you could end up with lots of people who will drain your resources rather than help your country - all countries have immigration controls of some kind
-----> Australia (very strict!)

CHINA   ANTI-NATAL

When was the policy introduced?
The 'One Child Policy' was introduced in 1979 and although it was designed as a temporary measure it still continues today.
Why?
Mao, the ruler between 1950 and 1959 said that "the more people, the stronger we are" and " a large population gives a strong nation". This resulted in China becoming overpopulated and its resources seriously stretched. This led to a famine in 1959 where 20 million people died. Despite this famine, China's population continued to grow by 55 million a year. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping became ruler and he had a very different view on population to Mao. He wanted to focus on strengthening the economy and saw overpopulation as a roadblock to economic development and so introduced the 'One Child POlicy' in 1979.
How does it work?
The One Child POlicy limits couples to having one child. However it isnt legally binding nationally (although very strongly enforced in urban areas) and so there are some exceptions to the policy.............
- In most rural areas families are allowed a second child under the condition that the first child is female or disabled and that they leave a time spacing of 3 to 4 years
- China's 55 ethnic minorites (8% of the population) are exempt from the policy
- Couples are permitted to bear antoehr child if their first is disabled or dies
However, for the rest of the population this policy is strongly enforced. Pressure is put on women to use contraception and forced abortions and sterilizations are reported to have occured. The 'Granny Police' are used to male sure  people use contraception and to report on pregnancies. Those who abide by this rule are rewarded with promotions and preferences for education and housing.
Has it been effective?
At present China's populations stands at around 1.3 billions but it is believed that it would be 25% higher if the policy wasn't introduced. The policy has lowered the TFR to 1.6. This reduction in population size has helped to recude the strains on social services, natural resources and reduced the scale of the problems provoked slums and epidemics.
Have there been any recent changes to the policy?
In 1995 the Eugenics Law was introduced - if couples want to marry they are tested for genetic disorders and infectious diseases. If carrying any of these they cannot have children and so must use contraception or be sterilized. Apart from that the policy has been relaxed slightly. For example, in urban areas, if both husband and wife are from a one child family thet are permitted to raise two children (this is likely to only be a temporary relaxation).
Are there any negative side effects?
Female infantcide has become an issue as boys are preferred to girls. This has produced a distorted sex ratio and in 1996 there was 118 boys to every 100 girls. Little Emperor Syndrom is also becoming an issue as parents give too much attention to their only child which has resulted in high obesity levels and demanding boys who often become delinquents in their teens. The policy has also created an ageing population and this problem is only going to get worse as by 2020 all of those born before the policy was introduced will have reached retirement.
Criticisms of the policy?
- The One Child Policy has been criticised by human rights activists as they say the policy is against human rights.
- Chinese demographers argue that the transition to market economy, rather than family planning, is the main reason for the rapid drop in Chinese fertility over the last 30 years.

SINGAPORE
 
When was the policy introduced?
- In 1966 they established the Family Planning and Population Board, which was responsible for providing clinical services and public education on family planning
- In 1970, abortion and voluntary sterilization was legalised
- In 1969 the 'Stop at Two' policy was introduced
- In 1986 the 'Three or More if you can afford it' policy was introduced
Why?
Since the mid 1960's Singapore's population grew due to falling death rates, high birth rates and high immigration. The Singapore governments saw rapid population growth as a threat to the living standrsa, education and health services and political stability of the country. Between 1969 and 1972, a set of policies known as population disincentives were introduced to raise the costs of bearing third, fourth and subsequent children.
Has it been efftective?
Perhaps the 'Stop at Two' policy was too effective............ Fertility declined throughout the 1970's, reaching below the replacement level to 1.006 in 1975, and declining further thereafter. By the 1980's, the government had become concerned with the low rate of population growth and with the relative failure of the most highly educated citizens to have children. 
Have there been any recent changes to the policy?
In 1986 the government decided to replace the 'Stop at Two' policy with 'Have Three or More, if you can afford it' and now, as a result, the TFR is 1.9.

FRANCE   PRO NATAL

When was the policy introduced?
- 1939 the Code de la famille was introduced with a range of financial incentives for married couples with children
- 1920 and 1923 laws passed banning abortion and contraception
- 1940 Minitsty of POpulation intoduced the death penatly for back street abortions
Why?
France has had a problem with its birth rate since the middle of the eighteenth century. France experienced  a period of population stagnation caused by low levels of fertility (desire to limit inheritnace to fewer children, late marriage, high levels of celibacy) and higher than average levels of infant mortality (due to poor sanitation, nutrition and health care). This low level of fertility continued into the twentieth century and was furthered by such events as the two world wars, and the influenza epidemic of 1919.
How does it work?
 - Concours de la meilleure menagere (Housewife of the Year Award) was introduced as well as setting up family associations such as Ligue de la mere au foyer (League of the Mother at Home) which actively campaigns against women working. The Womens Catholic League and the UFCS have also been influential.
- They started building lots of new flats - the shortage of accomodation being the biggest disincentive to having children - and intriduced an elaborate system of allowances allocated to families according to how many children they have had and the timing of their births, as well as tax relief, reduction on transport and cinema tickets for families with over 3 children.
- The ideological pressure exerted on women by the media, the church, family associations and by politicains were complimented by concrete financial incentives from government designed to encourage women to stay at homw with kids.
Has it been effective and have there been any recent changes to the policies?
It didn't really work until the mid 1940's and between 1943 and 1965 France experienced teh desired baby boom. Between those years the number of births (14 million) exceeded the number of deaths (9 million). The IMR fell and an increasing number of young couples, encouraged by the incentives, had larger and larger families.
- 1967, contraception legalized
- 1975, abortion legalised
TFR is now 2, as so is not far from the replacement level, but this is unlikely to get any higher as the views of modern women will be very hard to change.

INDONESIA  TRANSMIGRATION

When was the policy introduced?
The idea of a transmigration policy was first introduced in the early nineteenth century.
Why and how does it work?
The population distribution in Indonesia was very uneven. It was started inder the Dutch colonial rule and was then continued by the Indonesian government. The policy involved moving people from teh overpopulated islands of Java, Mali and Madura to the underpopulated islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. This was hoped to balance population density and alleviate poverty by providing land and new oppurtunties to generate income for poor landless settlers. It is estimated that 7 million people were moved in total.
Has it been effective?
It hasn't really effected the problems of overpopulation on Mali, Java and Madura or given a better quality of life and standard of living to the migrants. Insteas it has lead to destruction of the rainforest, fighting between the migrants and indigenous people and has not aided the development of Indonesia's economy.
Have there been any recent changes to the policy?
It has been quietly dropped (but not offically!) as it does not appear to be carrying on - this is most likely due to the costs involved.

AUSTRALIA  IMMIGRATION

Why do they have a strict policy?
Australia has such a strict immigration policy as they do not want to end up with lots of people who will drain their resources rather than help the country. They also believe that "working in Australia is a privileg, not a right".
How does it work?
- People are legible for a visa if they have partners, children, parents and other family members who are Austarlian citizens
- If you have certain skills that would help the country (electrician, builder, radiographer, paediatrician, accountnat, computing professional etc.) you may also be able to become a migrant
- Australis has very strict rules for people wanting to enter the country when they are not citizens or don't have a visa. For example, in October 2001, Australia failed to send a search party for a boat carrying 397 asylum seekers that sank suddenly in the waters between Java and Christmas Islands because they didnt want them coming to Australia. Two Indonesian fishing boats eventually arrived and managed to rescue 44 survivors - 353 people drowned.

Well, these are all the notes I have on the population policies and I hope they are helpful to those of you that need them. I am sorry I don't have any notes on the migration case studies but if I managed to find some, I will make sure I write them up on here - any help with this would be greatly appreciated!!!

Case study: pro-natalist policy in France

Many areas of Europe have a low fertility rate [fertility rate: The average number of babies born to each woman. ] because of the following reasons:

  • education - people are more aware of the availability of contraception and consequences an unplanned pregnancy can have on their career
  • women in careers - Women may choose to follow their career choice rather than start a family while young
  • later marriages
  • state benefits - couples no longer need children to help care for them when older

France was a country with concerns that professional women were choosing not to have children. The government were worried that the population was not going to replace itself over time.

The policies that were put in place to encourage three-children families were:

  • a cash incentive of £675 monthly (nearly the minimum wage) for a mother to stay off work for one year following the birth of her third child
  • the 'carte famille nombreuse' (large family card), giving large reductions on train fares
  • income tax based on the more children the less tax to pay
  • three years paid parental leave, which can be used by mothers or fathers
  • government subsidised daycare for children under the age of three, and full time school places for over threes paid for by the government

This has resulted in mothers considering having children and remaining in work. The fertility rate [fertility rate: The average number of babies born to each woman. ] in France is one of Europe's highest.

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