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Senator Roger Wicker Committee Assignments For 113th


Legislative Metrics

Read our 2017 Report Card for Wicker.

Ideology–Leadership Chart

Wicker is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot is a member of the Senate positioned according to our liberal–conservative ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).

The chart is based on the bills Wicker has sponsored and cosponsored. See full analysis methodology.

Ratings from Advocacy Organizations

Committee Membership

Roger Wicker sits on the following committees:

  • Chair, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • Senate Committee on Armed Services
  • Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
    • Chair, Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, Innovation, and the Internet
    • Member, Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security
    • Member, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard
    • Member, Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety and Security
  • Joint Committee on Printing
  • Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works
  • Senate Committee on Rules and Administration

Enacted Legislation

Wicker was the primary sponsor of 9 bills that were enacted. The most recent include:

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We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if about one third or more of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).

Bills Sponsored

Issue Areas

Wicker sponsors bills primarily in these issue areas:

Science, Technology, Communications (20%)Health (17%)Public Lands and Natural Resources (15%)International Affairs (11%)Finance and Financial Sector (11%)Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues (9%)Law (9%)Transportation and Public Works (7%)

Recent Bills

Some of Wicker’s most recently sponsored bills include...

View All » | View Cosponsors »

Voting Record

Key Votes

Wicker’s VoteVote Description
Yea H.R. 5325: Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2017
Sep 28, 2016. Bill Passed 72/26.
Nay S. 2328: National Sea Grant College Program Amendments Act of 2015
Jun 29, 2016. Motion Agreed to 68/30.
The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA) —designated as Pub.L. 114–187 and originally as H.R. 5278— is a federal law enacted by the United States Congress that establishes an oversight board, a process for restructuring debt, and expedited procedures for approving critical ...
Yea H.R. 22: Developing a Reliable and Innovative Vision for the Economy Act
Dec 3, 2015. Conference Report Agreed to 83/16.
H.R 22, formerly the Hire More Heroes Act, has become the Senate’s vehicle for passage of the Developing a Reliable and Innovative Vision for the Economy Act or DRIVE Act (S. 1647). The DRIVE Act is a major bipartisan transportation bill that would authorize funding ...
Yea H.R. 1314: Trade Act of 2015
Oct 30, 2015. Motion Agreed to 64/35.
This vote was on the bill in its final form as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015.
Aye H.R. 3355 (110th): Homeowners’ Defense Act of 2007
Nov 8, 2007. Passed 258/155.
Aye H.Res. 801 (110th): Providing for consideration of the bill (H.R. 3688) to implement the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement.
Nov 7, 2007. Passed 349/55.
Yea H.R. 3121 (110th): Flood Insurance Reform and Modernization Act of 2007
Sep 27, 2007. Passed 263/146.
Yea H.R. 1830 (110th): To extend the authorities of the Andean Trade Preference Act until February 29, 2008.
Jun 27, 2007. Passed 365/59.
Nay H.R. 2317 (110th): Lobbying Transparency Act of 2007
May 24, 2007. Passed 382/37.

Missed Votes

From Jan 2008 to Mar 2018, Wicker missed 62 of 2,930 roll call votes, which is 2.1%. This is on par with the median of 1.4% among the lifetime records of senators currently serving. The chart below reports missed votes over time.

Show the numbers...

Time PeriodVotes EligibleMissed VotesPercentPercentile
2008 Jan-Mar8555.9%91st
2008 Apr-Jun7711.3%31st
2008 Jul-Sep4748.5%81st
2008 Oct-Dec600.0%0th
2009 Jan-Mar11800.0%0th
2009 Apr-Jun9611.0%45th
2009 Jul-Sep8911.1%56th
2009 Oct-Dec9411.1%54th
2010 Jan-Mar10832.8%76th
2010 Apr-Jun9633.1%82nd
2010 Jul-Sep4400.0%0th
2010 Nov-Dec5100.0%0th
2011 Jan-Mar4612.2%60th
2011 Apr-Jun5835.2%73rd
2011 Jul-Sep4912.0%48th
2011 Oct-Dec8233.7%70th
2012 Jan-Mar6334.8%91st
2012 Apr-Jun10910.9%47th
2012 Jul-Sep2827.1%84th
2012 Nov-Dec5000.0%0th
2013 Jan-Jan100.0%0th
2013 Jan-Mar9222.2%83rd
2013 Apr-Jun7667.9%90th
2013 Jul-Sep4312.3%73rd
2013 Oct-Dec8000.0%0th
2014 Jan-Mar9311.1%49th
2014 Apr-Jun12375.7%69th
2014 Jul-Sep5400.0%0th
2014 Nov-Dec9600.0%0th
2015 Jan-Mar13532.2%81st
2015 Apr-Jun8500.0%0th
2015 Jul-Sep5200.0%0th
2015 Oct-Dec6711.5%47th
2016 Jan-Mar3825.3%68th
2016 Apr-Jun7900.0%0th
2016 Jul-Sep34514.7%87th
2016 Nov-Dec1200.0%0th
2017 Jan-Mar10100.0%0th
2017 Apr-Jun5400.0%0th
2017 Jul-Sep5311.9%60th
2017 Oct-Dec11700.0%0th
2018 Jan-Mar4900.0%0th

Primary Sources

The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:

Roger Wicker is pronounced:

RO-jer // WI-ker

The letters stand for sounds according to the following table:

LetterSounds As In

Capital letters indicate a stressed syllable.

This article is about the U.S. Senator from Mississippi. For other people with a similar name, see William Cochran (disambiguation).

Thad Cochran
United States Senator
from Mississippi


Assumed office
December 27, 1978
Serving with Roger Wicker
Preceded byJames Eastland
Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee


Assumed office
January 3, 2015
Preceded byBarbara Mikulski
In office
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byTed Stevens
Succeeded byRobert Byrd
Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2005
Preceded byTom Harkin
Succeeded bySaxby Chambliss
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi's 4th district
In office
January 3, 1973 – December 26, 1978
Preceded bySonny Montgomery
Succeeded byJon Hinson
Personal details
BornWilliam Thad Cochran
(1937-12-07) December 7, 1937 (age 80)
Pontotoc, Mississippi, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic(Before 1967)
Spouse(s)Rose Clayton (1964–2014)
Kay Webber (2015–present)
EducationUniversity of Mississippi(BA, JD)
WebsiteSenate website
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service1959–1961

William Thad Cochran (born December 7, 1937) is an AmericanRepublican politician serving as the seniorUnited States Senator for Mississippi (he is second most-senior Republican member after Orrin Hatch), first elected to the Senate in 1978, and Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee, which he had also chaired (2005–07). He also chaired the Senate Agriculture Committee (2003–05). Cochran won reelection to a seventh term in 2014, after defeating Chris McDaniel in an intense primary run-off election.[1][2] He is currently the dean of the Mississippi congressional delegation and the longest current-serving member of Congress. On March 5, 2018, he announced his intention to resign from the Senate on April 1 for health reasons.[3]

Early life[edit]

Thad Cochran was born on December 7, 1937, in Pontotoc, Mississippi, the son of Emma Grace (née Berry) and William Holmes Cochran, a teacher and school principal, respectively. His family settled in Hinds County, Mississippi, home of the state capital, Jackson, in 1946 after a few moves around the northern part of the state.[4] He graduated valedictorian[5] from Byram High School near Jackson.[6]

Cochran then received a B.A. degree from the University of Mississippi with a major in psychology and a minor in political science in 1959.[6] There he joined the Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity and was on the cheerleading squad (fellow senator Trent Lott was also an Ole Miss cheerleader).[7] He was elected to the Phi Kappa Phi honor society, and he worked as a lifeguard at Livingston Lake in Jackson during the summers.[8]

After a time in the United States Navy (1959–1961), where he was commissioned an ensign aboard the USS Macon, Cochran received a J.D. degree from the University of Mississippi School of Law in 1965. While in law school, he won the Frederick Hamel Memorial Award for having the highest scholastic average in the first year class and served on the editorial board of the Mississippi Law Journal.[8] He then practiced law for seven years. In 1964 he married Rose Clayton, who died in 2014. The couple had two children.[9] On May 23, 2015, Cochran married his longtime aide Kay Webber in a private ceremony in Gulfport, Mississippi.[10]

Cochran grew up as a Democrat, but became a Republican sometime in the mid-to-late 1960s as the New Deal coalition collapsed.[citation needed] He served as head of Richard Nixon's Mississippi campaign in 1968.

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

In 1972, Democratic Congressman Charles H. Griffin of Mississippi's 3rd congressional district decided not to run for a third full term. Cochran won the Republican nomination for the Jackson-based district, which was renumbered as the 4th District after redistricting. He defeated Democratic state senator Ellis B. Bodron by 47.9% to 44%. A factor in Cochran's victory was the strong Republican showing in that year's presidential election. Richard Nixon won most of the counties in the 4th district by over 70 percent of the vote. Hinds County, for instance, gave him 77 percent, en route to taking 78 percent of Mississippi's popular vote. The Republican candidate for the U.S. Senate that year, Gil Carmichael, an automobile dealer from Meridian, finished with 38 percent of the vote against James Eastland but was shunned by the statewide Nixon campaign.

That year, Cochran and Trent Lott (who later served alongside him in the U.S. Senate) became the second and third Republicans to be elected to represent Mississippi in the House of Representatives since Reconstruction (Prentiss Walker was the first in 1964).

Cochran quickly became very popular in his district, even though almost none of its living residents had been represented by a Republican before. He was handily re-elected with 70.2% in 1974, a year in which anger over the Watergate scandal caused several Republicans to lose their seats. He was re-elected with an even larger 76% of the vote in 1976.

U.S. Senate[edit]


In 1978, six-term Democratic Senator James Eastland decided to retire. Cochran ran for the seat and won the Republican primary, defeating State Senator and former Jones County prosecutor Charles W. Pickering, 69-31 percent. In the general election, he faced Democrat Maurice Dantin, a former District Attorney who had triumphed in a four-way primary with the backing of Eastland, and Independent candidate Charles Evers, the Mayor of Fayette. Evers, the first African-American to be elected mayor of a Mississippi town since Reconstruction, split the Democratic vote and Cochran won with a plurality, taking 45.3% to Dantin's 31.8% and Evers' 22.6%.[11] This made Cochran the first Republican to win a statewide election in Mississippi in a century.[12] Eastland resigned on December 26 to give Cochran a seniority advantage over new incoming senators. GovernorCliff Finch appointed Cochran to serve the remaining week of Eastland's term.[13]

Cochran faced an expected strong challenge for re-election from incumbent Democratic Governor William Winterin 1984, but he was re-elected easily, 60.9 to 39.1 percent. For decades, Cochran did not face a serious challenger. He was completely unopposed in 1990 and took 71 percent of the vote in 1996. The Democratic nominee, Bootie Hunt, a retired factory worker, received 27.4 percent. No Democrat ran against him in 2002 and he faced only Reform Party candidate Shawn O'Hara, beating him by 84.6 to 15.4 percent. He faced his first serious challenger in twenty-four years in 2008 when the Democrats nominated State Representative Erik R. Fleming. In a year that saw widespread Democratic gains, Cochran was still re-elected, 61.4-37.6 percent. In 2014, Cochran faced a primary challenge from Tea Party-supported candidate Chris McDaniel. Since neither candidate won 50% in the Republican primary, a run-off election was held; Cochran narrowly defeated McDaniel in the run-off to win the Republican nomination for a seventh term in the Senate.[2]


On March 5, 2018 Cochran announced he will retire on April 1, 2018.[14] He is one of the longest-serving members of Congress in history.[15]

Cochran served as Vice Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 1985 to 1991 and as Chairman from 1991 to 1996. He is its only former Chairman currently in the Senate. He Chaired the Senate Agriculture Committee from 2003 to 2005. In 2005, he was appointed as Chairman of the powerful Senate Appropriations Committee, making him the first Republican from a former Confederate state to chair the committee. While Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Cochran worked to expedite the process of approving spending bills to minimize partisan skirmishing.[16] He was the ranking Republican on the Appropriations Committee from 2007 to 2014.

In June 1996 Cochran ran for the post of Senate Majority Leader to succeed Republican Bob Dole, who had resigned from the Senate to concentrate on his presidential campaign. Cochran faced his Mississippi colleague Trent Lott, the then-Senate Majority Whip. Cochran cast himself as an "institutionalist" and who would held to rebuild public trust in Congress through compromise over conflict. Lott promised a "more aggressive" style of leadership and courted the younger Senate conservatives. Cochran lost by 44 votes to 8.[17]

His colleagues have honored him. In 2005, an agricultural appropriations bill proposed by the Committee Cochran chaired contained a provision (sec. 782) that said:

The Federal facility located at the South Mississippi Branch Experiment Station in Poplarville, Mississippi, and known as the "Southern Horticultural Laboratory", shall be known and designated as the "Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory"[18]

Anti-lynching law[edit]

On June 13, 2005, the U.S. Senate formally apologized for its failure to enact a federal anti-lynching law in the early 20th century, "when it was most needed". The resolution was passed on a voice vote with 80 Senators cosponsoring. Cochran and fellow Mississippian Trent Lott were among the 20 Senators who did not join as cosponsors.[19]

Time magazine article[edit]

In April 2006 he was selected by Time as one of "America's 10 Best Senators". He was dubbed "The Quiet Persuader" for his role in winning money for the Gulf Coast in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. He managed to wring "$29 billion out of his colleagues, almost double the money [President George W.] Bush and congressional leaders had initially pledged".[20] Earlier, Cochran threatened to derail a defense appropriations bill unless it included funding for installations on the Gulf Coast.[20]

The article also noted that Cochran has "gained the trust of the Administration and Capitol Hill for his quiet, courtly manner... using his experience and mastery of the issues to persuade his colleagues privately rather than making demands on them in public". The magazine quoted an unnamed "senior GOP Senator" who said "He doesn't get a whole lot of play in terms of coverage, but he is effectively stubborn doing what needs to be done."[20]


In 2005, he was one of nine senators who voted against the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, which prohibited "inhumane treatment of prisoners, including prisoners at Guantanamo Bay". The others, all Republicans, were Wayne Allard, Kit Bond, Tom Coburn, Jeff Sessions, Jim Inhofe, Pat Roberts, John Cornyn and Ted Stevens.

On July 18, 2006, Cochran voted, along with 19 Republican Senators, for the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act to lift restrictions on federal funding for the research.

In April 2010, it was reported that Cochran finished at the top of the Citizens Against Government Waste's list of congressional earmarks, having requested a total of $490 million in earmarks.[21]

In 2012, Cochran encouraged Mississippians to prepare for the effects of Tropical Storm Isaac, saying "Taking steps now to protect people and property should help lessen the losses that might be associated with Isaac. It is important that everyone stay informed and follow emergency orders. I am confident that Mississippians have learned valuable lessons from previous storms and will work together to prepare for this newest threat, I believe Governor Bryant and others are handling emergency preparedness actions very well."[22]


Cochran opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation; he voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[23] and he voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[24]

Guns law[edit]

Cochran has an A+ rating from the National Rifle Association (NRA) due to his consistent voting and support of pro-gun legislation. The NRA endorsed Cochran in the 2014 election.[25]

In April 2013, Cochran was one of forty-six senators to vote against the passing of a bill which would have expanded background checks for gun buyers. Cochran voted with 40 Republicans and 5 Democrats to stop the passage of the bill.[26]

Cochran voted to overturn a law that made it illegal for certain individuals with specific mental health diagnosis to purchase guns. The original law was passed with a unanimous vote in 2007 after the Virginia Tech shooting. Cochran claims the law infringed upon the Second Amendment rights of disabled people.[27]


In 2017, Cochran was one of 22 senators to sign a letter[28] to President Donald Trump urging the President to have the United States withdraw from the Paris Agreement. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Cochran has received more than $290,000 from oil, gas and coal interests since 2012.[29]

Jefferson Davis[edit]

As senior senator of the state of Mississippi, Cochran was given the opportunity to use the desk of Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy, which Cochran accepted.[30] Cochran said that he was "very proud" to have Davis's desk.[30] Cochran opposed attempts to remove a statue of Davis from the U.S. Capitol.[30]


In March 2009, his former aide Ann Copland pleaded guilty to swapping legislative favors for event tickets and other gifts from lobbyist Jack Abramoff. Copland worked for Cochran for 29 years.[31]

In April 2015, a veteran staffer, personal assistant and office manager for the Senator named Fred Wesley Pagan was arrested and later indicted for possession with intent to distribute 181.5 grams of methamphetamine as well as importation of a kilo of another List 1 controlled drug called GBL.[32] The accused staffer is the third highest paid employee of the Senator.[33]


  • The Natchez Trace Parkway Land Conveyance Act of 2013 (S. 304; 113th Congress) (S. 304) is a bill that was sponsored and actively lobbied for by Thad Cochran during the 113th United States Congress.[34][35] The bill would require the National Park Service (NPS) to convey about 67 acres of property in the Natchez Trace Parkway to the state of Mississippi. The legislation also would adjust the boundaries of the parkway to include 10 additional acres.[36] The two pieces of land in question originally belonged to Mississippi, and were donated to the National Park Service when the NPS was trying to determine where to end the Natchez Trace Parkway.[34][37] Since the NPS did not choose to use either of the pieces of land, the state would like the land back.[37]
  • The Bipartisan Sportsmen's Act of 2014 (S. 2363; 113th Congress), a bill related to hunting, fishing, and outdoor recreation in the United States, aimed at improving "the public's ability to enjoy the outdoors."[38] Cochran supported the bill, arguing that the bill "deserves broad support for its policies and reforms that will protect and enhance opportunities to hunt, fish and enjoy the outdoors."[38] The National Shooting Sports Foundation (NSSF) supported the bill and thanked Cochran for his support, saying that "Senator Cochran's advocacy will help in the fight to promote, preserve, and protect our cherished outdoor heritage and defend against the radical anti-hunting activists determined to derail this important legislation."[39]

Committee assignments[edit]

  • Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
  • Committee on Appropriations (Chairman)
    • Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies
    • Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (Ex Officio)
    • Subcommittee on Defense (Chairman)
    • Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
    • Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government (Ex Officio)
    • Subcommittee on Homeland Security
    • Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
    • Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
    • Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch (Ex Officio)
    • Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies (Ex Officio)
    • Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Ex Officio)
    • Subcommittee on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (Ex Officio)
  • Committee on Rules and Administration

Caucus memberships[edit]

Electoral history[edit]


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 1978


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 1984


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 1990

RepublicanThad Cochran274,244100.00

Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 1996


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 2002


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 2008


Main article: United States Senate election in Mississippi, 2014

Mississippi's US Senate Republican Primary election, 2014
RepublicanChris McDaniel157,73349.46%
RepublicanThad Cochran (incumbent)156,31549.02%
RepublicanThomas Carey4,8541.52%
Mississippi's US Senate Republican Primary Runoff election, 2014
RepublicanThad Cochran (incumbent)194,97251.01%
RepublicanChris McDaniel187,24948.99%

The Cochran campaign denied allegations of vote buying made by a blogger regarding his primary run-off victory in 2014.[44]

RepublicanThad Cochran (Incumbent)378,48159.90
DemocraticTravis Childers239,43937.89
ReformShawn O'Hara13,9382.21
Total votes631,858100


Cochran during his time in the House of Representatives
  1. ^Todd, Chuck (June 4, 2014). "Mississippi Runoff Bad News for Thad Cochran". NBCNews.com. New York City: NBCUniversal. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ abBurns, Alexander (June 24, 2014). "Cochran Wins". Politico. Retrieved June 25, 2014. 
  3. ^"Mississippi Senator Thad Cochran announces he is stepping down". The Guardian. March 5, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  4. ^"Mississippi Republican Party » Sen. Thad Cochran". www.msgop.org. Retrieved February 26, 2016. 
  5. ^Weeks, Linton (January 7, 1999). "Two From Ole Miss, Hitting It Big". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. p. C1. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  6. ^ ab"Delta State dedicates Thad Cochran Center for Rural School Leadership and Research - Delta State University". www.deltastate.edu. Retrieved February 26, 2016. 
  7. ^"Ole Miss cheerleading squad". The Washington Post. January 8, 1999. 
  8. ^ ab"Thad Cochran Biography". Thad Cochran Senate. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  9. ^"Wife of GOP Sen. Thad Cochran of Mississippi dies". USA Today. December 12, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2015. 
  10. ^"Cochran marries longtime aide Kay Webber". Retrieved January 22, 2018. 
  11. ^Black, Earl; Merle Black (2003). The Rise of Southern Republicans. Harvard University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-674-01248-6. 
  12. ^"Results of Elections Across the Nation". The Blade. November 7, 1978. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  13. ^Associated Press (December 27, 1978). "Eastland Quits Early To Aid His Successor". The Blade. Retrieved April 19, 2010. 
  14. ^https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/05/us/politics/thad-cochran-retire-senate.html
  15. ^https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/mississippis-sen-thad-cochran-to-resign-from-the-senate-after-four-decade-congressional-career/2018/03/05/be8477d4-20c0-11e8-94da-ebf9d112159c_story.html?utm_term=.f1d86db080ae
  16. ^"Sen. Thad Cochran (R)". National Journal. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  17. ^David Hawkings (June 8, 2014). "What Cochran Vs. Lott Said About Today's GOP Civil War". Roll Call. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  18. ^Committee On Rules - AnnouncementsArchived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^Thomas-Lester, Avis (June 14, 2005), "A Senate Apology for History on Lynching", The Washington Post, p. A12, Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  20. ^ abc"Thad Cochran: The Quiet Persuader". Time. April 14, 2006. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  21. ^"Miss. Senator Leads Congress In Earmarks". WAPT. April 15, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  22. ^"Cochran: Prepare now to lessen storm losses". The Delta Farm Press. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  23. ^"U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov. Retrieved January 22, 2018. 
  24. ^"U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  25. ^Bump, Philip (October 3, 2017). "Are Republican senators justified in being worried about the NRA?". Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  26. ^Silver, Nate (April 18, 2013). "Modeling the Senate's Vote on Gun Control". The New York Times. 
  27. ^Fowler, Sarah. "Cochran, Wicker vote to remove gun restrictions". USA TODAY. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  28. ^Inhofe, James. "Senator". Retrieved June 7, 2017. 
  29. ^"The Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris deal are big oil darlings". The Guardian. June 1, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017. 
  30. ^ abc"Mississippi Senators Defend Jefferson Davis". Roll Call. June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 

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