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My Mother Essay In English Wikipedia Download

All About My Mother (Spanish: Todo sobre mi madre) is a 1999 Spanish drama film written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar, and starring Cecilia Roth, Marisa Paredes, Antonia San Juan, Penélope Cruz and Candela Peña.

The plot originates in Almodóvar's earlier film The Flower of My Secret (1995) which shows student doctors being trained in how to persuade grieving relatives to allow organs to be used for transplant, focusing on the mother of a teenager killed in a road accident. All About My Mother deals with complex issues such as AIDS, homosexuality, transsexualism, faith, and existentialism.

The film was a commercial and critical success internationally, winning the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in addition to the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film and the BAFTA Awards for Best Film Not in the English Language and Best Direction (Almodóvar). The film also won 6 Goya Awards including Best Film, Best Director (Almodóvar), Best Actress (Roth).


The film centers on Manuela, an Argentine nurse who oversees donor organ transplants in Ramón y Cajal Hospital in Madrid and single mother to Esteban, a teenager who wants to be a writer.

On his seventeenth birthday, Esteban is hit by a car and killed while chasing after actress Huma Rojo for her autograph following a performance of A Streetcar Named Desire, in which she portrays Blanche DuBois. Manuela has to agree with her colleagues at work that her son's heart be transplanted to a man in A Coruña. After travelling after her son's heart, Manuela quits her job and journeys to Barcelona, where she hopes to find her son's father, Lola, a transvestite she kept secret from her son, just as she never told Lola they had a son.

In Barcelona, Manuela reunites with her old friend Agrado, a warm and witty transgender prostitute. She also meets and becomes deeply involved with several characters: Rosa, a young nun who works in a shelter for battered prostitutes, but is pregnant by Lola and is HIV positive; Huma Rojo, the actress her son had admired; and the drug-addicted Nina Cruz, Huma's co-star and lover. Her life becomes entwined with theirs as she cares for Rosa during her pregnancy and works for Huma as her personal assistant and even acts in the play as an understudy for Nina during one of her drug abuse crises.

On her way to the hospital, Rosa asks the taxi to stop at a park where she spots her father's dog, Sapic, and then her own father, who suffers from Alzheimer's; he does not recognize Rosa and asks for her age and height, but Sapic is more clever and knows Rosa. Rosa dies giving birth to her son, and Lola and Manuela finally reunite at Rosa's funeral. Lola (whose name used to be Esteban), who is dying from AIDS, talks about how she always wanted a son, and Manuela tells her about her own Esteban and how he died in an accident. Manuela then adopts Esteban, Rosa's child, and stays with him at Rosa's parents' house. The father does not understand who Manuela is, and Rosa's mother says it's the new cook, who is living there with her son. Rosa's father then asks Manuela her age and height.

Manuela introduces Esteban (Rosa's son) to Lola and gives her a picture of their own Esteban. Rosa's mother spots them from the street and then confronts Manuela about letting strangers see the baby. Manuela tells her that Lola is Esteban's father; Rosa's mother is appalled and says: "That is the monster that killed my daughter?!"

Manuela flees back to Madrid with Esteban; she cannot take living at Rosa's house any longer, since the grandmother is afraid that she will contract AIDS from the baby. She writes a letter to Huma and Agrado saying that she is leaving and once again is sorry for not saying goodbye, like she did years before. Two years later, Manuela returns with Esteban to an AIDS convention, telling Huma and Agrado, who now run a stage show together, that Esteban had been a miracle by not inheriting the virus. She then says she is returning to stay with Esteban's grandparents. When Manuela asks Huma about Nina, Huma becomes melancholic and leaves. Agrado tells Manuela that Nina went back to her town, got married, and had a fat, ugly baby boy. Huma then rejoins the conversation briefly before exiting the dressing room to go perform.



Almodóvar dedicates his film "To all actresses who have played actresses. To all women who act. To men who act and become women. To all the people who want to be mothers. To my mother".

Almodovar recreates the accident scene from John Cassavetes' Opening Night as the epicenter of the dramatic conflict.

The film was mainly shot on location in Barcelona.

The soundtrack includes "Gorrión" and "Coral para mi pequeño y lejano pueblo", written by Dino Saluzzi and performed by Saluzzi, Marc Johnson, and José Saluzzi, and "Tajabone", written and performed by Ismaël Lô.[citation needed]


The film premiered in Spain on 8 April 1999 and went into general theatrical release on 16 April. It was shown at the Cannes Film Festival, the Karlovy Vary Film Festival, the Auckland Film Festival, the Austin Film Festival, the Thessaloniki International Film Festival, and the New York Film Festival before going into limited release in the USA. It eventually grossed €9,962,047 in Spain ($12,595,016), $8,272,296 in the US and $59,600,000 in foreign markets for a worldwide box office total of $67,872,296.[2]

Critical reception in the United States[edit]

Janet Maslin of the New York Times called it Almodóvar's "best film by far", noting he "presents this womanly melodrama with an empathy to recall George Cukor's and an eye-dampening intensity to out-Sirk Douglas Sirk". She added, "It's the crossover moment in the career of a born four-hankie storyteller of ever-increasing stature. Look out, Hollywood, here he comes".[3]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times observed, "You don't know where to position yourself while you're watching a film like All About My Mother, and that's part of the appeal: Do you take it seriously, like the characters do, or do you notice the bright colors and flashy art decoration, the cheerful homages to Tennessee Williams and All About Eve, and see it as a parody? . . . Almodóvar's earlier films sometimes seemed to be manipulating the characters as an exercise. Here the plot does handstands in its eagerness to use coincidence, surprise and melodrama. But the characters have a weight and reality, as if Almodóvar has finally taken pity on them – has seen that although their plights may seem ludicrous, they are real enough to hurt".[4]

Bob Graham of the San Francisco Chronicle said, "No one else makes movies like this Spanish director" and added, "In other hands, these characters might be candidates for confessions – and brawls – on The Jerry Springer Show, but here they are handled with utmost sympathy. None of these goings-on is presented as sordid or seedy. The presentation is as bright, glossy and seductive as a fashion magazine . . . The tone of All About My Mother has the heart-on-the-sleeve emotions of soap opera, but it is completely sincere and by no means camp".[5]

Wesley Morris of the San Francisco Examiner called the film "a romantically labyrinthine tribute that piles layers of inter-textual shout-outs to All About Eve, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, Federico García Lorca and Alfred Hitchcock, and beautifully assesses the nature of facades . . . Almodóvar imbues his Harlequin-novel-meets-Marvel-comic-book melodramas with something more than a wink and a smile, and it is beguiling. His expressionism and his screenwriting have always had fun together, but now there is a kind of faith and spirituality that sexcapades like Law of Desire and Kika only laughed at... [I]t contains a host of superlative firsts: a handful of the only truly moving scenes he has filmed, the most gorgeous dialogue he has composed, his most dimensional performances of his most dimensional characters and perhaps his most dynamic photography and elaborate production design".[6]

Jonathan Holland of Variety called the film "emotionally satisfying and brilliantly played" and commented, "The emotional tone is predominantly dark and confrontational . . . But thanks to a sweetly paced and genuinely witty script, pic doesn't become depressing as it focuses on the characters' stoic resilience and good humor".[7]

On review aggregatorRotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 98% based on 85 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 8.1/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Almodovar weaves together a magnificent tapestry of femininity with an affectionate wink to classics of theater and cinema in this poignant story of love, loss and compassion."[8] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 87 out of 100, based on 34 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[9]

Selected awards and nominations[edit]

Academy Awards

BAFTA Awards

Golden Globe Awards

Goya Awards

  • Best Actress (Roth, won)
  • Best Cinematography (nominated – lost to Goya in Bordeaux)
  • Best Costume Design (nominated – lost to Goya in Bordeaux)
  • Best Director (Almodóvar, won)
  • Best Editing (won)
  • Best Film (won)
  • Best Makeup and Hairstyles (nominated – lost to Goya in Bordeaux)
  • Best Original Score (Iglesias, won)
  • Best Production Design (nominated – lost to Goya in Bordeaux)
  • Best Sound (won)
  • Best Supporting Actress (Peña, nominee – María Galiana, Alone)
  • Best Screenplay – Original (Almodóvar, nominee – lost to Alone, Benito Zambrano)
Other awards

Stage adaptation[edit]

A stage adaptation of the film by playwright Samuel Adamson received its world première at the Old Vic in London's West End on 4 September 2007. This production marked the first English language adaptation of any of Almodóvar's works and had his support and approval.[11] Music by the film's composer, Alberto Iglesias, was incorporated into the stage production, with additional music by Max and Ben Ringham. It starred Colin Morgan, Diana Rigg, Lesley Manville, Mark Gatiss, Joanne Froggatt, and Charlotte Randle. It opened to generally good reviews, with some critics stating it improved upon the film.[12][13]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Awards for All About My Mother

A housewife is a woman whose work is running or managing her family's home—caring for her children; buying, cooking, and storing food for the family; buying goods that the family needs in everyday life; housekeeping and maintaining the home; and making clothes for the family—and who is not employed outside the home.[1] A housewife may also be called a stay-at-home mother or "SAHM",[2] and a househusband may be called a "male homemaker", "stay-at-home father, or SAHD.

Webster's Dictionary describes a housewife as a married woman who is in charge of her household. The British Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (1901) defined a housewife as: "the mistress of a household; a female domestic manager; a pocket sewing kit".[3] A small sewing kit is sometimes called a "housewife" or "hussif".[4]

Sociology and economics[edit]

Some feminists[5][6] and non-feminist economists (particularly proponents of historical materialism, the methodological approach of Marxist historiography) note that the value of housewives' work is ignored in standard formulations of economic output, such as GDP or employment figures. Housewives work many unpaid hours a week, often depending on income from their husband's employment for financial support.

Traditional societies[edit]

In societies of hunters and gatherers like the traditional society of the Australian aboriginal people, the men hunt animals for meat, and the women gather other foods such as grain, fruit and vegetables. One of the reasons for this division of labor was that it is much easier to look after a baby while gathering fruit than while hunting a fast-moving animal. Even when homes were very simple and there were few possessions, men and women did different jobs.

In rural societies, where the main work is farming, women have also taken care of gardens and animals around the house, generally helping men with heavy work when a job needed to be done quickly, usually because of the season.

Examples of the heavy work that a traditional housewife (homemaker) in a rural society would do are:

  • Picking fruit when it was ripe for market
  • Planting rice in a paddy field
  • Harvesting and stacking grain
  • Cutting hay

In rural studies, the word housewife is occasionally used for a woman who does the majority of the chores within a farm's compound as opposed to field and livestock work[citation needed].

Modern society[edit]

Regarding work, being a housewife may be seen as the opposite of being a career woman. However, a career woman may also be contrasted to someone following the "mommy track", or a shared earning/shared parenting marriage.

Regarding family size, a study of three Mexican cities came to the result that there was no significant difference in the number of children in housewife families compared to those where women worked part or full-time.[7]

It is becoming more commonplace for the husband and wife to be employed in paid work and for both to share in the "housework" and caring for the children.[citation needed] However, in other families, there is still a traditional idea that housework is only a woman's job; so when a couple gets home from work, the wife works in the house while the man takes a rest, or uses the time for recreational pursuits.

Housewives are usually financially dependent on members of the household who are employed; however, people working full-time (particularly under "at-will employment" arrangements) benefit from the unwaged work provided by the housewife; otherwise the performance of such work (child care, cooking, housecleaning, teaching, transporting, etc.) in her absence would cost money.[8] Studies have shown the percentage of women staying home does not increase consistently "as husband's earnings go up." In fact, women with the "lowest earning husbands are more likely to stay home, followed by women with the highest earning husbands."[9]


The method, necessity and extent of education of house wives has been debated since at least the 20th century.[10][11][12][13]

Songs about the housewife's lot[edit]

The housewife's tasks have often been the subject of songs. Examples include: "The Housewife's Lament" (from the diary of Sarah Price, Ottawa, Illinois, mid 19th century);[14] "Nine Hours a Day" (1871 English song, anonymous); "A Woman's Work is Never Done"[15] or "A Woman Never Knows When her Day's Work is Done"; "The Labouring Woman"; "How Five and Twenty Shillings were Expended in a Week" (English popular songs); "A Woman's Work" (London music hall song by Sue Pay, 1934).[16] "The Housewife's Alphabet", by Peggy Seeger, was issued as a Blackthorne Records single with "My Son".[17]

Housewives by country[edit]

In China[edit]

In imperial China (excluding periods of the Tang dynasty), women were bound to homemaking by the doctrines of Confucianism and cultural norms. Generally, girls did not attend school and, therefore, spent the day doing household chores with their mothers and female relatives (for example, cooking and cleaning). In most cases, the husband was alive and able to work, so the wife was almost always forbidden to take a job and mainly spent her days at home or doing other domestic tasks. As Confucianism spread across East Asia, this social norm was also observed in Korea, Japan and Vietnam. As foot binding became common after the Song Dynasty, many women lost the ability to work outside.

After the founding of the Republic of China in 1911, these norms were gradually loosened and many women were able to enter the workforce. Shortly thereafter, a growing number of females began to be permitted to attend schools. Starting with the rule of the People's Republic of China in 1949, all women were freed from compulsory family roles. During the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution, some women even worked in fields that were traditionally reserved for males.

In modern China, housewives are no longer as common, especially in the largest cities and other urban areas. Many modern women work simply because one person's income is insufficient to support the family, a decision made easier by the fact that it is common for Chinese grandparents to watch after their grandchildren until they are old enough to go to school. Nonetheless, the number of Chinese housewives has been steadily rising in recent years as China's economy expands.[dubious– discuss]

In India[edit]

In a traditional Hindu family, the head of the family is the Griha Swami (Lord of the House) and his wife is the Griha Swamini (Lady of the House). The Sanskrit words Grihast and Grihasta perhaps come closest to describing the entire gamut of activities and roles undertaken by the homemaker. Grih is the Sanskrit root for house or home; Grihasta and Grihast are derivatives of this root, as is Grihastya. The couple lives in the state called Grihastashram or family system and together they nurture the family and help its members (both young and old) through the travails of life. The woman who increments the family tree (bears children) and protects those children is described as the Grihalakshmi (the wealth of the house) and Grihashoba (the glory of the house). The elders of the family are known as Grihshreshta. The husband or wife may engage in countless other activities which may be social, religious, political or economic in nature for the ultimate welfare of the family and society. However, their unified status as joint householders is the nucleus from within which they operate in society. The traditional status of a woman as a homemaker anchors them in society and provides meaning to their activities within the social, religious, political and economic framework of their world. However, as India undergoes modernisation, many women are in employment, particularly in the larger cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore where most women will work. The role of the male homemaker is not traditional in India, but it is socially accepted in urban areas. According to one sociologist's study in 2006, twelve percent of unmarried Indian men would consider being a homemaker according to a survey conducted by Business Today.[19] One sociologist, Sushma Tulzhapurkar, called this a shift in Indian society, saying that a decade ago, "it was an unheard concept and not to mention socially unacceptable for men to give up their jobs and remain at home."[20] However, only 22.7 percent of Indian women are part of the labor force, compared to 51.6 percent of men; thus, women are more likely to be caregivers because most do not work outside the home.[21]

In Korea[edit]

North Korea[edit]

Until around 1990, the North Korean state required every able-bodied male to be employed by some state enterprise. However, some 30% of married women of working age were allowed to stay at home as full-time housewives (less than in some countries in the same region like South Korea, Japan and Taiwan; more than in the former Soviet Union, Mainland China and Nordic countries like Sweden, and about the same as in the United States[22]). In the early 1990s, after an estimated 900,000-3,500,000 people perished in the North Korean famine, the old system began to fall apart. In some cases women began by selling homemade food or household items they could do without. Today at least three-quarters of North Korean market vendors are women. A joke making the rounds in Pyongyang goes: 'What do a husband and a pet dog have in common?' Answer: 'Neither works nor earns money, but both are cute, stay at home and can scare away burglars.'[23]

In the United Kingdom[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(February 2013)

Two British magazines for housewives have been published: The Housewife (London: Offices of "The Million", 1886[1900]) and Housewife (London: Hultons, 1939–68).[24]

"On a Tired Housewife" is an anonymous poem about the housewife's lot: "Here lies a poor woman who was always tired, / She lived in a house where help wasn't hired: / Her last words on earth were: «Dear friends, I am going / To where there's no cooking, or washing, or sewing, / For everything there is exact to my wishes, / For where they don't eat there's no washing of dishes. / I'll be where loud anthems will always be ringing, / But having no voice I'll be quit of the singing. / Don't mourn for me now, don't mourn for me never, / I am going to do nothing for ever and ever.»"[25]

In the United States[edit]

A 2005 study estimated that 31 percent of working mothers leave the workplace (for an average of 2.2 years), most often precipitated by the birth of the second child.[26] This gives time to concentrate full-time on child-rearing; particularly through the child(ren)'s early years (before entering kindergarten). There is considerable variability within the stay-at-home mother population with regard to their intent to return to the paid workforce. Some plan to work from their homes, some will do part-time work, some intend to return to part or full-time work when their children have reached school age, some may increase their skill sets by returning to higher education, and others may find it economically feasible to refrain from entering (or re-entering) the paid workforce. Research has linked feelings of "maternal guilt and separation anxiety" to returning to the workforce.[27]

Similarly, there is considerable variation in the stay-at-home mother's attitude towards domestic work not related to caring for children. Some may embrace a traditional role of housewife, cooking and cleaning in addition to caring for children. Others see their primary role as that of child-care providers, supporting their children's physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual development while sharing or outsourcing other aspects of home care.


Although men have generally been thought of as the primary breadwinners for families in recent history, the division of labor between men and women in traditional societies required both genders to take an active role in obtaining resources outside the domestic sphere. Prior to discovering agriculture and animal husbandry, predictable food sources were a scarce commodity. To achieve optimal nutrition during this time, it was imperative that both men and women focus their energies on hunting and gathering as many different edible foods as possible to sustain themselves on a daily basis. Lacking the technologies necessary to store and preserve food, it was critical for men and women to seek out and obtain fresh food sources almost continuously. These nomadic tribes used gender differences to their advantage, allowing men and women to use their complementary adaptations and survival strategies to find the most diverse and nutritionally complete foods available. For example, in the context of daily foraging, childcare itself was not a hindrance to women's productivity; rather, performing this task with her children both increased the overall efficiency of the activity (more people participating equals a greater yield of edible roots, berries, nuts and plants), and functioned as an important hands-on lesson in survival skills for each child. By sharing the burden of daily sustenance – and developing specialized gender niches – humans not only ensured their continued survival, but also paved the way for later technologies to evolve and grow through experience.

In the 19th century, more and more women in industrialising countries stopped being homemakers and began to undertake paid work in various industries. At this time many big factories were set up, first in England then in other European countries and the United States. Many thousands of young women went to work in factories; most factories employed women in roles different from those occupied by men. There were also women who worked at home for low wages while caring for their children at the same time.

Other women, like Florence Nightingale, decided to go against the social norm, and pursue non-factory professions even if they were wealthy enough that they did not need to work. Some professions open to women were also restricted to unmarried women. e.g. teaching. In most families where there was a husband and wife, the social norm dictated that it was the job of the husband to earn money and the job of the woman to be the "housewife" (homemaker). Women were often very proud to be a good homemaker and have their house and children respectably taken care of.

In the early 20th century, both world wars (World War I, 1914–18, and World War II, 1939-45) were fought by men from many countries. (There were also special roles in the armed forces carried out by women, e.g. nursing, transport, etc. and in some countries women soldiers also.) While the men were at war, many of their womenfolk went to work to keep the countries running. Women, who were also homemakers, worked in factories, businesses and farms. At the end of both wars, many men had died, and others had returned injured. Some men were able to return to their previous positions, but some women stayed in the workforce as well. In addition to this surge in women entering the workforce, convenience food and technology were also rising in popularity, both of which saved women time that they may have spent performing domestic tasks, and enabled them to instead pursue other interests. [28]

The governments of Communist countries in the early and middle 20th century such as the Soviet Union and China encouraged married women to keep working after giving birth. There were very few housewives in Communist countries until free market economic reform in the 1990s, which led to a resurgence in the number of housewives. Conversely, in the Western World of the 1950s, many women quit their jobs to be housewives after giving birth. Only 11% of married women in the US kept working after giving birth.[29]

In the 1960s in western countries, it was becoming more accepted for a woman to work until she got married, when it was widely held that she should stop work and be a housewife. Many women believed that this was not treating men and women equally and that women should do whatever jobs they were able to do, whether they were married or not. The Feminine Mystique, a 1963 book by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States, discussed among other things the lives of housewives from around the United States who were unhappy despite living in material comfort and being married with children.[30][31] At this time, many women were becoming more educated. As a result of this increased education, some women were able to earn more than their husbands. In very rare cases, the husband would remain at home to raise their young children while the wife worked. In 1964 a US stamp was issued honoring homemakers for the 50th anniversary of the Smith-Lever Act.[32][33]

About 50% of married US women in 1978 continued to work after giving birth, while in 1997, the number was 61%. The number of housewives increased in the 2000s. With the 2008 financial crisis, a decrease in average income made two incomes more attractive, and the percentage of married US women who kept working after they giving birth increased to 69% by 2009.[34][35] As of 2014, according to the Pew Research Center, more than one in four mothers are stay at home in the United States.

In the late 20th century, in many countries it became harder for a family to live on a single wage. Subsequently, many women were required to return to work following the birth of their children. However, the number of male homemakers began gradually increasing in the late 20th century, especially in developed Western nations. In 2010, the number of male homemakers had reached its highest point of 2.2 million.[36] Though the role is subject to many stereotypes, and men may have difficulties accessing parenting benefits, communities, and services targeted at mothers, it became more socially acceptable by the 2000s.[37] The male homemaker was more regularly portrayed in the media by the 2000s, especially in the United States. However, in some regions of the world the male homemaker remains culturally unacceptable.

Notable Housewives[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(July 2016)

Examples of notable housewives include:



The Netherlands[edit]

United States[edit]

See also[edit]



  1. ^"Housewife". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  2. ^"Home page". StayAtHomeMum. 
  3. ^Davidson, Thomas (ed.). Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. & R. Chambers. p. 443. 
  4. ^"housewife". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^Luxton, Meg; Rosenberg, Harriet (1986), Through the Kitchen Window: The Politics of Home and Family, Garamond Press, ISBN 978-0-920059-30-2 
  6. ^Luxton, Meg (1980), More Than a Labour of Love: Three Generations of Women's Work in the Home, Women's Press, ISBN 978-0-88961-062-0 
  7. ^Chant, Sylvia (1991). Women and Survival in Mexican Cities: perspectives on gender, labour markets, and low-income households. Manchester, UK; New York, NY, USA: Manchester University Press Distributed in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-7190-3443-4. Page 128
  8. ^"What's a Wife Worth?". 17 March 1988. Retrieved 17 Oct 2015. 
  9. ^Cotter, David, Paula England, and Joan Hermsen. "Moms and jobs: Trends in mothers’ employment and which mothers stay home." Families as they really are (2008): 416-24.
  10. ^Dement, Alice L. (1960). "Higher Education of the Housewife: Wanted or Wasted?". The Journal of Higher Education. Ohio State University Press. 31 (1 (January)). doi:10.2307/1977571. JSTOR 1977571. 
  11. ^"Mummy, I want to be a housewife". Times Higher Education. 26 April 1996. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  12. ^"Crafting an Educated Housewife in Iran"(PDF). 
  13. ^"Highly educated housewives: what an economic waste". The Times. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  14. ^Recorded on: The Female Frolic, Argo ZDA 82 & Seeger, P.Penelope isn't Waiting any More Blackthorne BR 1050
  15. ^Recorded on Staverton Bridge SADISC SDL 266
  16. ^Kathy Henderson et al., comp. (1979) My Song is My Own: 100 women's songs. London: Pluto; pp. 126-28, 142-43
  17. ^New City Songster; vol. 13, Oct. 1977
  18. ^Lena Bernhardtz. "Ekonomiskt oberoende– långt kvar för EU:s kvinnor"(PDF). Välfärd, by Statistics Sweden.  February 2013
  19. ^"Life & Times of Indian Men". Business Today. July 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  20. ^Dias, Raul (June 26, 2006). "Now papas do what mamas did best!". Times of India. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  21. ^"Asia's women in agriculture, environment and rural production". Archived from the original on 2014-06-30. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  22. ^a Chinese-English translation web (译言网):Will Chinese women rule the world?
  23. ^Andrei Lankov (a professor in South Korea National University). "Pyongyang's Women Wear the Pants". cuyoo.com (Chinese-English Translate Web. 
  24. ^Held by various libraries in the UK; Copac
  25. ^The Penguin Book of Comic and Curious Verse, ed. J. M. Cohen. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1952; p. 31
  26. ^Hewlett, S. A., Luce, C. B., Shiller, P. & Southwell, S. (2005, March). The hidden brain drain: Off-ramps and on-ramps in women’s careers. Center for WorkLife. Policy/Harvard Business Review Research. Report, Product no. 9491. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
  27. ^Rubin, Stacey E., and H. Ray Wooten. "Highly educated stay-at-home mothers: A study of commitment and conflict." The Family Journal 15.4 (2007): 336-345.
  28. ^Maurer, Elizabeth (2017), "How Highly Processed Foods Liberated 1950s Housewives", National Women's History Museum 
  29. ^In the kitchen debate in 1959: Nixon said American housewives are happier than the Soviet Union working women
  30. ^"The Feminine Mystique Summary". Enotes.com. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  31. ^Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 - The New York Times, February 5, 2006.
  32. ^"Leaving Their Stamp on History". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. 
  33. ^"Arago: Homemakers Issue". 
  34. ^Employment Characteristics of Families Summary". U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
  35. ^a Chinese-English translation web (译言网: Will Chinese women rule the world?
  36. ^Livingston, Gretchen. "Growing Number of Dads Home with the Kids". Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. Retrieved 2016-03-22. 
  37. ^Andrea Doucet, 2006. Do Men Mother? Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
  • Allen, Robert, consult. ed. (2003 (et seq)). The Penguin English Dictionary. London, England: Penguin Books. p. 1642. ISBN 0-14-051533-X. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Swain, Sally (1988) Great Housewives of Art. London: Grafton (reissued by Harper Collins, London, 1995) (pastiches of famous artists showing housewives' tasks, e.g. Mrs Kandinsky Puts Away the Kids' Toys)
United States
  • Campbell, D'Ann (1984). Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era, on World War II
  • Ogden, Annegret S. (1987) The Great American Housewife: From Helpmate to Wage Earner, 1776-1986
  • Palmer, Phyllis (1990). Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945.
  • Ramey, Valerie A. (2009), “Time Spent in Home Production in the Twentieth-Century United States: New Estimates from Old Data,” Journal of Economic History, 69 (March 2009), 1–47.
  • Tillotson, Kristin (2004) Retro Housewife: a salute to the urban superwoman. Portland, Ore.: Collectors Press ISBN 1-888054-92-1
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher (1982). Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750
  • Draznin, Yaffa Claire (2001). Victorian London's Middle-Class Housewife: What She Did All Day 227pp
  • Hardy, Sheila (2012) A 1950s Housewife: Marriage and Homemaking in the 1950s. Stroud: the History Press ISBN 978-0-7524-69-89-8
  • McMillan, James F. (1981) Housewife or Harlot: The Place of Women in French Society, 1870-1940 229pp
  • Myrdal, Alva & Klein, Viola (1956) Women’s Two Roles: Home and Work. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Robertson, Una A. (1997) Illustrated History of the Housewife, 1650-1950 218pp (on Britain)
  • Sim, Alison (1996). Tudor Housewife, (on 1480 to 1609 in England)

External links[edit]

Look up Housewife in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up homemaker in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Housewives.
Good Housekeeping (an American magazine), 1908
Southern Paiutes at Moapa, Nevada, wearing traditional Paiute basket hats; note the Paiute cradleboard and rabbit robe
A housewife in Yendi, Kumasi, Ghana, pours water into a meal and her children play; 1957
Part of the housework of a London housewife, 1941
1950s Tetrapak advertisement depicting a housewife as a selector and consumer of products
A Minnesota housewife in the kitchen of her mobile home
A woman cooks, supervised by a teacher in a domestic economy institute in Stockholm, Sweden, 1950.

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